Currently the machine tools have five basic subsystems, changing slightly from machine to machine while maintaining its characteristics.

Support Subsystem

Responsible for the support of all organs of the machine. It comprises the following components: Supports, beds and guides. In the case of the lathe, the purpose of the bed is to maintain the alignment of the movement of the tailstock and the longitudinal car.
Subsystem Attachment Part

It is responsible for fixing  the part to be machined in the machine tool. It comprises the plate and tailstock.

Locking Subsystem and Movement Tool

Its function is to set the tool and make your move in different directions. In the case of the lathe, consists of the car longitudinal, cross slide, car transporter, tower of fixing tools, spindle and rod.

Feed Subsystem

It aims to provide the automatic movement of the tool and its speed variations.

Top Drive Subsystem

The function of this subsystem is to provide the spin of the part at different speeds. The major constituents are the drive motor, pulleys,  belts, gears and shafts for transmission of movement.

Other Subsystems

Besides these there are other subsystems that fulfill specific functions depending on the needs of each. Examples are the subsystem for the issue of cutting fluid and chip subsystem nib.